When development of the F-22 began in 1981, the Air Force
intended to purchase 648 aircraft at an estimated total program
cost of $99.1 billion -- making it the most expensive weapons
system in history. The program began to meet what was perceived
as a growing threat of Soviet air power and to replace the
Requests for information were issued, resulting in concept
definition studies awarded in September 1983 to Boeing,
General Dynamics, Grumman, McDonnell Douglas, Northrop and
Competing engine demonstration/validation programmes launched
Requests for proposals for an Advanced Tactical Fighter
(ATF) issued in September.
Submissions received by 28 July 1986;
On 31 October 1986 USAF announced selection of demonstration
/ validation phase contractors: Lockheed YF-22 and Northrop
YF-23; Both Lockheed and Northrop produced two prototypes
and a ground-based avionics testbed;
Ground testing started in 1986, continuing during 1987;
Flight-capable engines, Pratt & Whitney YF119s and General
Electric YF120s were ordered early 1988;
Lockheed teamed with General Dynamics (Fort Worth) and
Boeing Military Airplanes to produce two YF-22 prototypes,
civil registrations N22YF (with GE YF120) and N22YX (P&W
October 11 the decision was taken to extend the evaluation
phase by six months. First flight test of avionics in a
Boeing 757, modified to include a F-22 wing section mounted
above the forward fuselage to test conformal antennas.
First flights of all four prototypes.
USAF serial numbers 87-0700 and 87-0701 assigned, but only
87-0701 applied during second phase of testing, from late
- N22YF rolled out at Pahndale 29 August 1990;
- First flight/ferry to Edwards AFB 29 September 1990;
- First air refuelling (1 lth sortie) 26 October 1990;
- N22YX first flight PalmdaleEdwards 30 October 1990;
- Thrust vectoring in flight 15 November 1990;
- Anti-spin parachute for high angle of attack tests on
34th to 43rd sorties;
- AIM-9M Sidewinder launch demonstration 28 November 1990
- AIM-120A AMRAAM launch demonstration 20 December 1990
- Max speed of Mach 1.8 and supercruise of Mach 1.58 without
afterburner achieved on 26 December 1990;
Temporarily grounded after 31 sorties/38 hours 48 minutes,
28 December 1990.
the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/validation
(dem/val) program. The effort involved the design, construction,
and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. The
dem/val phase of the program was completed in December 1990.
Flight test demonstrations included 100ø/s roll rate
at 120 knots and supercruise flight in excess of Mach 1.58
without Second (F119-powered)
YF-22 taken by road to Palmdale mid-1991;
Fitted with strain gauges; began further 100 hour test
programme 30 October;
Gathered data on aerodynamic loads, flight control aerodynamic
effects, vibration/acoustic fatigue and maximum coefficient
The Air Force announces the F-22 as
the winner in the next generation fighter contest.
In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed and its advanced aircraft
were either not produced, or produced in limited quantity,
and lacked the necessary maintenance to pose a serious threat
to American fighters. Partially as a result, the Department
of Defense cancelled both the MRF and A/F-X programs, but
continued with the F-22 and F/A-18E/F.
Two contracts totaling $10.91 billion ($9.55 billion for
the airframe and $1.36 billion for engines) were awarded
for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the
F-22 and F119 to the then Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics
team and Pratt & Whitney in August 1991.
Flown by 65 10th test Squadron (F-22 Combined Test Force)
of 65 10th Test Wing at Edwards AFB; a non-fatal crash landing
at Edwards 25 April 1992, following pilot-induced oscillations;
Lockheed officials claimed that 95 percent of the testing
was already complete at the time of the crash. The Air Force
blamed the tragedy on the way the plane was operated and
that certain operating restrictions and minor software changes
should prevent future problems. After the crash, flight
testing on the F-22 was suspended.
Fabrication of first component for first EMD aircraft (c/n
4001 ) began at Boeing's facility in Kent, Washington on
8 December 1993;
Combat role reassessment adds air-to-ground attack with
precision-guided munitions to the F-22's roles. Weapons
bay and avionics to be adapted for delivery of 1,000 pound
Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM); two JDAM's will replace
two AIM-120A's in the main weapons bay.
In 1993, the Air Force planned to purchase 648 F-22s at
a per plane cost of $84 million in 1995 dollars.
In 1993, the Department of Defense identified seven countries
-- China, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, North Korea and Cuba
-- that pose potential threats to the United States. Estimates
vary as to the quantity and quality of these countries'
respective air forces. The General Accounting Office estimated
that these potential adversaries, with the exception of
China, possess air forces ranging from a low of 188 to a
high 460 aircraft.
In 1994, procurement was reduced to 442 aircraft, with an
estimated cost of $73.5 billion in fiscal year 1995 dollars.
This raised the per plane cost to $91 million.
As of December 31, 1994, $11.9 billion had been spent on
the F-22 program.
Supporters contend that the F-22 can also be used in an
air-to-ground role. However, the Congressional Budget Office
concluded in a February 1995 report that the F-22's utility
in this role would be far less than that of an aircraft
designed specifically for that mission.
The Congressional Budget Office report entitled "Reducing
the Deficit" concluded in February 1995 that cancellation
of the F-22 program would result in a five-year savings
of $14.5 billion dollars. The CBO's primary reason for the
cancellation option is that the F-22's additional capability
is both unnecessary and too expensive.
The Critical Design Review (CDR) of the F-22 and the Initial
Production Readiness Review (IPRR) of the F119 engine were
completed in February 1995. The Air Force confirmed that
the program was ready to proceed to fabrication and assembly
of EMD aircraft.
Assembly work also begun at Fort Worth Summer 1995
Assembly of forward fuselage launched at Marietta on 2
November 1995 with start of work on nose landing gear well;
Supporters of the F-22 are expected to try and add $200
million to the military budget in fiscal year 1996 to avoid
delays in the F-22 program. The Air Force originally requested
$2.3 billion for fiscal year 1996 for the F-22 program,
but the Pentagon reduced that to $2.1 billion. This follows
a $110 million cut by Congress in the 1995 budget request,
and $163 million in the FY 1994 budget plan.
$2.15 billion has been requested for fiscal year 1996
Mating of three assemblies that comprise the mid-fuselage
of first EMD aircraft taking place in Spring 1996
Road transfer of the entire section to Marietta in August
1996, starting the final assembly process;
The anticipated total program cost of the F-22 is $73.5
billion for 442 aircraft.
$2.05 billion requested for fiscal year 1997.
First flight of an EMD aircraft, which was originally planned
for May 1997 took place in September 1997.
The number-one YF-22 prototype, painted and marked as the
Pratt & Whitney powered aircraft, is scheduled to be
put on display at the U. S. Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson
Approximately 10 F-22 test flights will be made from Marietta,
Ga. During the later flights, the F-22 will undergo aerial
Although the Navy would like to adopt a variant of the
F-22, the current design is only capable from operating
from long, land based air strips. This model does not have
a strong enough frame to handle the violent jolts incurred
from landing on a short, moving aircraft carrier deck. The
Navy maintains the option to begin work on their own variant
March 31, An official ceremony today marked the transfer
of the YF-22, the prototype for the F-22 Raptor, to the
U. S. Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
May 17~18, The F-22 added another page to the base's long
history of aviation milestones today when it resumed active
flight testing at approximately 7:30 in the morning at Edwards
Airforce Base. One day later the aircraft continued to check
out "Code One", mening returning to base with
July 30, F-22 testers air-refueled a Raptor for the first
time when aircraft 4001 topped off its tank behind a KC-135
about one-and-a-half hours into a test flight here July
30. The air refueling took place at an altitude of 20,000
feet and an air speed of 300 knots (approximately 345 mph)
above Edwards Airforce Base.
August 26, The second US Air Force F-22 Raptor air dominance
fighter, designated Raptor 4002, made its first cross-country
flight today nonstop from Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Marietta,
Ga., to Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. In California
October 13, Lockheed Martin test pilot Jon Beesley has
flown the first F-22 built by Air Force contractors Lockheed
Martin, Boeing, and Pratt & Whitney faster than the
speed of sound for the first time.
The Air Force plans to procure 438 production F-22s, and
production is scheduled to run through 2013.
The final Production Readiness Review for the F119 engine
is scheduled to take place at Pratt & Whitney's facility
in West Palm Beach, Fla. Later in the month, the F119 Full
Flight Release is scheduled to be granted. Due to happen
First flight of an EMD F-22 with a full avionics suite
is expected to take place around mid 1999
September 30, 1999
The last of 27 EMD F119 flight test engines are scheduled
to be delivered to Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems.
Low-rate initial production is scheduled to begin in 1999.
Planned delivery of lot 1: 2 pcs
During July the House Appropriations Committee agreed to
suspend planned production of the F-22 stealth fighter,
taking away some $1.8 billion in production funds to buy
the first six fighters from Lockheed Martin Corp
Frantic negociations were held over the next few months,
to reach an agreement before the next fical year started
october 1st '99. House and Senate negotiators ended the
struggle, giving the Air Force only half the $1.8 billion
it had requested for next year to get the F-22 off the ground.
The compromise spared the $65 billion program from being
scrapped, as the House had voted last July.
The planes could only be put into production if certain
performance tests were passed.
Planned delivery of lot 2: 6 pcs
The contractor portion of the Engineering and Manufacturing
Development (EMD) phase of the program is scheduled to be
The US Airforce assignment code is updated to F/A-22, due
to the plane's futur role of attack weapon.
The F-22 is scheduled to enter operational service and it
will begin to take over the air dominance role first with
Air Combat Command late 2004.